Promethazine is a first-generation antihistamine. Common side effects include confusion and sleepiness. Some documented side effects include:. Because of potential for more severe side effects, this drug is on the list to avoid in the elderly.
Promethazine is listed as one of the drugs of highest anticholinergic activity in a study of anticholinergenic burden, including long-term cognitive impairment.
Promethazine, a phenothiazine derivative, is structurally different from the neuroleptic phenothiazines, with similar but different effects. Another notable use of promethazine is as a local anestheticby blockade of sodium channels. Solid promethazine hydrochloride is a white to faint-yellow, practically odorless, crystalline powder.
Slow oxidation may occur upon prolonged exposure to air, usually causing blue discoloration. Its hydrochloride salt is freely soluble in water and somewhat soluble in alcohol.
Promethazine is a chiral compound, occurring as a mixture of enantiomers. Promethazine was first synthesized by a group at Rhone-Poulenc which later became part of Sanofi led by Paul Charpentier in the early s.
It is also marketed in many combination drug formulations:. The recreational drug Purple drank often contains a combination of promethazine with codeine containing cold medication.
Inthe US Supreme Court ruled on a product liability case involving promethazine. The drug was injected improperly, resulting in gangrene and subsequent amputation of her right forearm below the elbow.
The case was appealed to the Supreme Court on grounds of federal preemption and substantive due process. On September 9,the FDA required a boxed warning be put on promethazine for injection, stating the contraindication for subcutaneous administration. The preferred administrative route is intramuscular, which reduces risk of surrounding muscle and tissue damage.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.Drug information provided by: IBM Micromedex. Promethazine is used to relieve or prevent the symptoms of hay fever, allergic conjunctivitis inflammation of the eyeand other types of allergy or allergic reactions. It works by preventing the effects of a substance called histamine, which is produced by the body. Histamine can cause itching, sneezing, runny nose, and watery eyes. It can sometimes close up the bronchial tubes air passages of the lungs and make breathing difficult.
Promethazine is also used to prevent and control motion sickness, nausea, vomiting, and dizziness. In addition, it may be used to help people go to sleep and control their pain or anxiety before or after surgery or other procedures.
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Choose a degree. Get updates. Give today. Drugs and Supplements Promethazine Oral Route. Products and services. Free E-newsletter Subscribe to Housecall Our general interest e-newsletter keeps you up to date on a wide variety of health topics. Sign up now. Description and Brand Names Drug information provided by: IBM Micromedex US Brand Name Phenergan Promacot Descriptions Promethazine is used to relieve or prevent the symptoms of hay fever, allergic conjunctivitis inflammation of the eyeand other types of allergy or allergic reactions.
Mayo Clinic Marketplace Check out these best-sellers and special offers on books and newsletters from Mayo Clinic.Drug information provided by: IBM Micromedex. Along with its needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects.
Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention. Stop taking this medicine and get emergency help immediately if any of the following effects occur:.
Some side effects may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects. Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:. Other side effects not listed may also occur in some patients.
If you notice any other effects, check with your healthcare professional. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. All rights reserved. Information is for End User's use only and may not be sold, redistributed or otherwise used for commercial purposes. Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. Advertising revenue supports our not-for-profit mission.
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Mayo Clinic Marketplace Check out these best-sellers and special offers on books and newsletters from Mayo Clinic.NCBI Bookshelf. Promethazine is first generation antihistamine that belongs to the phenothiazine class and is used predominantly as an antiemetic to treat nausea and vomiting and prevent motion sickness.
Despite its phenothiazine structure, promethazine has not been linked to instances of clinically apparent acute liver injury. Promethazine proe meth' a zeen is a first generation antihistamine that is used widely to treat and prevent nausea and to a lesser extent to treat allergy symptoms and as a mild sedative.
Promethazine belongs to the phenothiazine class of antihistamines and is a potent antiemetic. Because of its sedating effects, promethazine is also used for anxiety, tension and as a mild sleeping aid.
Promethazine was approved for use in the United States in and continues to be widely used with more than 10 million prescriptions filled yearly. Promethazine is available in multiple forms including tablets, capsules, syrups, suppositories and liquid solution for injection generically and under the brand name Phenergan.
Unlike other antihistamines, promethazine is not available over-the-counter. Current indications include nausea, preoperative sedation, nighttime sedation, rhinitis and allergic symptoms, cough and respiratory symptoms, and treatment and prevention of motion sickness. The typical recommended dose in adults is Common side effects include excessive sedation, impairment of motor function, confusion, dizziness, extrapyramidal symptoms, blurred vision, dry mouth and throat, palpitations, tachycardia, abdominal distress, constipation and headache.
Antihistamines can worsen urinary retention and glaucoma. Despite widespread use and similarity to phenothiazines, promethazine has not been clearly linked to liver test abnormalities or to clinically apparent liver injury. The reason for its safety may relate to low daily dose and limited duration of use. References on the safety and potential hepatotoxicity of antihistamines are given together after the Overview section on Antihistamines.
View in own window. Turn recording back on. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Drug Records. Search term.Promethazine is the generic form of the brand-name drug Phenergan, used as an antihistaminesedativeand anti-nausea drug. Your doctor may also prescribe promethazine to relieve allergy symptoms like runny nose and watery, red eyes, or prevent and treat motion sickness.
Additionally, it can help with allergic skin conditions or reactions to blood or plasma products and may be used to treat the discomforts of a common cold like sneezing, coughing, and runny nose.
Physicians might combine promethazine with other drugs to help relieve a sudden allergic reaction known as anaphylaxis. This medication may also be given to relax and sedate people before and after surgery, during labor, or to prevent and control the nausea and vomiting that may occur after surgery. When combined with narcotic pain medication after surgery, it can improve the effectiveness of the pain medication. It's marketed by Morton Grove Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
The FDA has issued a black-box warning about the use of promethazine hydrochloride in children younger than 2 years because the drug could lead to severe or fatal breathing problems. Let your doctor know right away if you have unusual or unexpected side effects to this medication.
Promethazine may lead to impaired thinking or reaction time. Drinking alcohol could increase the side effects of this medication. It's also possible that serious side effects might result. If you notice twitching, uncontrollable eye movements or uncontrollable movements of your lips, tongue, face, arms, or legs, call your doctor at once.
Let your doctor know if you have or have ever had any conditions that affect the production of blood cells in your bone marrow. It's also important to alert your healthcare provider of the following conditions:. Tell your pediatrician if your child isn't drinking normally, appears dehydrated, or has excessive diarrhea or vomiting.
If you are 65 or older, promethazine may not be the safest treatment option for your conditions. Talk to your doctor about other drugs that might be safer. If you are planning to have any type of surgery, including dental, make sure the physician knows you are using promethazine hydrochloride in advance.
However, taking it within two weeks of delivery might affect your newborn's platelet function. If you become pregnant while taking this drug, tell your doctor right away. Be sure to let your doctor know if you are pregnant or are planning to become pregnant as well as whether you are breastfeeding.
It's unknown whether promethazine hydrochloride will pass into breast milk. Talk with your doctor about using promethazine while breastfeeding.
Get emergency help if you notice any signs of an allergic reaction such as hives, itching, trouble breathing or swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue. That's why it's important that you provide your doctor with a complete list of all the prescription, non-prescription, and over-the-counter products, vitaminsand herbal supplements you are taking. Promethazine is known to interact with antidepressantsincluding:.
This drug might also interact with immunosupressants like azathioprine Imuran or barbiturates such as phenobarbital Luminal. Some treatments might also change the way promethazine affects you, including chemotherapy, epinephrine Epipen and ipratropium Atroventand drugs used to treat anxietyirritable bowel disease, mental illness, motion sickness, Parkinson's diseaseseizures, ulcers, or urinary problems.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors MAOIs such as isocarboxazid Marplanphenelzine Nardiltranylcypromine Parnateand selegiline Eldepryl, Emsam, Zelapar are also a concern as are narcotics and other pain medication, sleeping pills, and tranquilizers. In addition, promethazine shouldn't be used in conjunction with amiodarone Cordaronesotalol Betapacepimozide Orapquinidineand procainamide because it could increase the risk of abnormal heartbeats. Promethazine also shouldn't be used with propylthiouracil PTU since it can cause low white blood cell counts, increasing the risk of infection.
If you are planning on having an X-ray of your spinal cord myelography you should stopping taking this medicine at least 48 hours beforehand and not resume using it until 24 hours after since the dye used in this procedure can increase the risk of seizures.
Promethazine is known to make you feel sleepy so it's not a good idea to drive or operate machinery until you know how this medicine affects you. Alcohol can increase the side effects of this drug so talk to your doctor about any restrictions you might need to have while on this medicine.
Since this drug may make your skin more sensitive to sunlight, avoid prolonged exposure to the sun and wear protective clothing and sunscreen when going out.Promethazinesynthetic drug used to counteract the histamine reaction, as in allergies. Promethazine, introduced into medicine in the s, is used in the form of its hydrochloride. It is administered orally in tablets and syrups and intramuscularly in an aqueous solution. Promethazine is effective in controlling the symptoms of hay feveracute skin reactions such as hivesand contact dermatitis as from poison ivy.
It also is used to control the nausea that occurs in motion sickness. The most common side effect of promethazine is drowsiness. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree See Article History.
Alternative Title: 2-dimethylaminopropyl promethazine. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: motion sickness. Promethazine hydrochloride, with minimal risk of side effects, is a good substitute for scopolamine.
Several drugs in the antihistamine category also decrease susceptibility to motion sickness, including diphenidol, dimenhydrinate, cyclizine, and meclizine. The last named is effective over periods up to 24 hours. Histaminebiologically active substance found in a great variety of living organisms. It is distributed widely, albeit unevenly, throughout the animal kingdom and is present in many plants and bacteria and in insect venom. Histamine is chemically classified as an amine, an organic molecule based on the structure of ammonia….
Allergyhypersensitivity reaction by the body to foreign substances antigens that in similar amounts and circumstances are harmless within the bodies of other people. Antigens that provoke an allergic reaction are called allergens.
Typical allergens include pollens, drugs, lints,…. History at your fingertips. Sign up here to see what happened On This Dayevery day in your inbox!Promethazine DM is a combination medicine containing the drugs promethazine and dextromethorphan.
It's used to treat coughing, runny nose, and sneezing caused by the common coldallergieshay fever, and other illnesses. Promethazine is a phenothiazine, which blocks the effects of histamines natural substances that cause allergy symptoms. Dextromethorphan is a cough suppressant that acts on a certain part of the brain to reduce the urge to cough. It's manufactured by Qualitest Pharmaceuticals.
Promethazine DM contains a black-box warning because it can cause breathing to slow or stop in young children. In severe cases, death can occur. Don't give this medicine to children younger than two years old, and talk to your doctor before giving it to children older than two. If you do give this medicine to a child, tell your doctor if the child has any type of lung disease such as asthma or lung disorder such as sleep apnea.
Call your child's doctor immediately or get emergency care if your child experiences any of the following symptoms:. Children who take promethazine DM may experience excitability. Talk to your child's doctor if this symptom becomes severe.FDA IV Promethazine Warning
Use caution when giving this medicine to children with a family history of sudden infant death syndrome SIDS. Older people may be more sensitive to certain side effects of promethazine DM, including drowsiness and confusion, which may increase the risk of falling.
This medicine should be used with caution by the elderly. Promethazine DM is typically not used to treat an ongoing cough caused by smoking or long-term breathing problems. Talk to your doctor about appropriate treatments if you have these conditions. Be sure to tell your doctor you're taking this medicine before having any type of medical procedure, including a dental procedure. Drink plenty of fluids while taking promethazine DM, which will help loosen mucus in your lungs.
Tell your doctor if your cough doesn't improve or worsens after seven days of taking this medicine. Some people take higher doses of promethazine along with the drug codeine to achieve a euphoric high. The two medicines are often combined in "purple drank," a liquid concoction containing promethazine cough syrup plus a soft drink that's consumed as a recreational drug. Improper use of promethazine DM can result in serious harm such as brain damage, seizures, or death. Don't take more of this medicine or use it more frequently than your doctor or product label recommends.
It's also not known whether the drugs in promethazine DM pass into breast milk or could hurt a breastfeeding baby. Tell your doctor about all prescription, non-prescription, illegal, recreational, herbal, nutritional, or dietary drugs you're taking, especially:.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration
Also, tell your doctor if you've taken a monoamine oxidase inhibitor MAOI in the past 14 days. Avoid prolonged sun exposure and tanning booths. Wear protective clothing and use sunscreen while outdoors.
It's typically taken every four to six hours as needed. You can take this medicine with or without food. Follow your doctor's instructions carefully when taking this medicine. Don't take more or less promethazine DM than is recommended. Be sure to use the special measuring device provided with your medicine.